The Acronym IN.YE.NZI: A Symbol of Bravery

On the 4th of December 2008, CNN aired a two-hour documentary on genocides titled: Scream Bloody Murder. In this documentary, the reporter, Christiane Amanpour, reminded the audience that a common strategy used by most genocidaires is to dehumanize their victims prior to killing them. In Cambodia for instance, the Khmer Rouge called their victims “Worms” while in Rwanda , the Hutu extremists called their victims “Inyenzi”, a Rwandan word that translates into Cockroaches in English.

Although it is absolutely outrageous to call a human being a cockroach, it is important to know that in Rwanda, up to date, the acronym “IN.YE.NZI”, not to be confused with the Rwandan word “Inyenzi “, has a positive connotation owing to the tactic used by a Tutsi rebel movement that devastated the First Republic of Rwanda throughout the 1960s.

The Origin of the Acronym IN.YE.NZI

The acronym “IN.YE.NZI”, not to be confused with the Rwandan word “Inyenzi” which translates into cockroaches in English, was coined by a Tutsi rebel named Aloys Ngurumbe back in the early 1960s. In two separate interviews, one with Rangira and Kalinganire from the Rwandan Newspaper KANGUKA No 52 (one of the Rwandan pro-RPF Newspapers in the 1990s), published on February 12th, 1992 and another one with the BBC on November 8th, 2003, Aloys Ngurumbe proudly explained that IN.YE.NZI is an acronym of the following words: ‘INgangurarugo yiYemeje kuba ingeNzi”. These two interviews can be accessed online at Rwanda Development Gateway and Inshuti websites.

Originally, the acronym IN.YE.NZI, and by extension the word Inyenzi, had a positive connotation to do with the tactic used by this rebel movement. According to Dr Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro, Ingangurarugo was an army division under Kigeli Rwabugili, a Tutsi King who ruled Rwanda at the end of the 19th century. Hence, the acronym IN.YE.NZI means a member of Ingangurarugo who has committed himself to bravery.

Etymologically, the word ingangurarugo comes from “kugangura urugo rw’ibwami” or “to provoke trouble at the king’s court.” When Rwabugili was still a child, he and his friends attacked Rwogera’s (his father) court and took away his cattle. More broadly then, ingangurarugo then means troublemakers. Aloys Ngurumbe clearly stated that his comrades chose this label for the guerrilla movement. It was not chosen by the extremist Hutus to whom it is now attributed in many writings on the Rwandan genocide of 1994.

In a recent interview with James Munyaneza from the Kigali New Times (Rwanda’s First Daily Newspaper), David Munyurangabo, a former member of the IN.YE.NZI rebel movement and therefore Ngurumbe’s comrade, confirmed the above information in these words: “My participation [in the Rwanda’s liberation] falls in the category of Rwandans who had been expelled from their country. I was part of Ingangurarugo [yiyemeje kuba Ingenzi] a rebel group formed shortly after the 1959 Tutsi expulsion from Rwanda, which then the Rwandan authorities nicknamed Inyenzi (Cockroaches)”.

The “IN.YE.NZI” Civil War

This is a war that was directed against the First Republic of Rwanda by the Tutsi rebels who were exiled in neighboring countries, especially in Uganda and in Burundi, in the aftermath of the Rwandan Revolution of 1959. This war was a deliberate attempt to regain power by force. In the 1960s, the IN.YE.NZI rebels would attack at night and kill innocent Rwandan civilians. Then they would rapidly vanish in the countryside or retreat into Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda or ex-Zaire (DRC).The IN.YE.NZI rebel movement was supported by some Communists Powers of that time, while the Rwandan Government could rely on its Western allies for support, especially Belgium.

The “IN.YE.NZI” war left serious impacts not only in the Hutu-Tutsi relationships but also in the Rwanda’s politico-socio- economic situation. As a direct consequence of the IN.YE.NZI civil war, during the First Republic of Rwanda led by President Gregoire Kayibanda from 1962-1973, the Tutsi inside Rwanda were marginalized in almost all social sectors, a situation that substantially improved during the Second Republic of Rwanda led by President Juvenal Habyarimana from 1973-1994.

The “IN.YE.NZI” Rebels Fuelled Hatred, Pleading Bravery

Due to the ability of the IN.YE.NZI rebels to terrorize the country by killing innocent civilians and to disappear shortly after, when the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) came in, the Rwandan population associated the IN.YE.NZI rebels with the Rwandan word Inyenzi, which translates into cockroaches in English, mostly due to the ability of the IN.YE.NZI rebels to hit-and-run overnight.

Cockroaches as you may know are annoying bugs that disappear when somebody turns on the light. It is very difficult to get rid of them at once. During the First Republic of Rwanda, the terminology Inyenzi became a generic label for the IN.YE.NZI rebels. During the Rwandan civil war launched by the RPF-INKOTANYI in 1990, sympathizers of President Juvenal Habyarimana and other Hutus opposed to the RPF’s ideology usually applied the label Inyenzi to their political opponents, even though the Tutsi rebels had dropped the acronym IN.YE.NZI for the word INKOTANYI.

Originally, the Rwandan word INKOTANYI means a militia that belonged to the Tutsi King Rwabugili in the 19th century.  During his reign, Rwabugili bludgeoned the majority Hutus into submission. More importantly, Rwabugili waged wars throughout the Great Lakes Region of Africa until his death in 1895. Unfortunately, because of tenacious memories of Rwabugili’s oppression that still resonates in many Rwandans, the term INKOTANYI was widely used during the Rwandan civil war from 1990 to 1994 by Hutu propagandists to link the Tutsi-led RPF guerrilla movement in the minds of Hutus with memories of past Tutsi oppression.

During their interviews, former IN.YE.NZI combatants, Aloys Ngurumbe and David Munyurangabo, failed to clarify what they meant when they adopted the acronym IN.YE.NZI to be their symbol of bravery. As Rwandans, Ngurumbe and Munyurangabo might have been aware of how dehumanizing the term would be should the Rwandan population decide to associate their comrades with the Rwandan word Inyenzi (cockroaches). This situation was mostly predictable for two main reasons: 1) both the acronym IN.YE.NZI and the Rwandan word Inyenzi spell and sound exactly the same in Kinyarwanda and 2) the bravery that goes with the acronym IN.YE.NZI would become meaningless with regard to Inyenzi (cockroaches) which are really annoying but defenseless.

The current RPF-INKOTANYI leadership has always referred to the “IN.YE.NZI” civil war and to its tragic consequences for the Rwandan society as part of a genocide plan masterminded by Hutu extremists, a genocide that started with the Rwandan Revolution in 1959 and attained its paroxysm in 1994 with the Rwandan genocide.

However, one should not ignore that if fueling hatred among Rwandans and incitation to commit acts of genocide was the intention lying behind the acronym IN.YE.NZI, the leaders of the IN.YE.NZI rebel movement that ravaged Rwanda in the 1960s should be held accountable for all of the cycles of violence that characterized the First Republic of Rwanda not to mention the Rwandan civil war launched by the RPF-INKOTANYI from the Ugandan territory in 1990 and ultimately ended with the Rwandan genocide in 1994.

Fuelling Hatred, Pleading Free Speech

During the Rwandan civil war in the 1990s, Hutu propagandists were not the only ones to misuse the media by dehumanizing their opponents as some Tutsi propagandists similarly dehumanized the Hutus who did not fully embrace the RPF’s ideology and were de facto labeled as “Extremist Hutus” instead of “Moderate Hutus”. From 1990 to 1994, many Rwandans who used to listen to RPF Radio MUHABURA attest that, the RPF leadership also used its radio to air programs that were deemed to fuel hatred among Rwandans. Unfortunately, upon coming to power in July 1994, the RPF leadership destroyed any evidence for such programs.

Nevertheless, the best illustration of how the Tutsi extremists also dehumanized the Hutus is a poem called ‘Nsingize Gisa Umusore Utagira Uko Asa’ (A Tribute to Gisa, a Young Man With an Indescribable Beauty) written by Dr Alexander Kimenyi, that appeared in the newspaper IMPURUZA (No 17) published in December 1990, just two months after the beginning of the Rwandan civil war of 1990s.

“You are a bullfighter who launched a war to free the Nobles [Tutsi]
Since you decided to use the entire arsenal
The termites [Hutu] will run out of the country
Just a few days before the first shell has landed
Those wild rats, corrupted crooks [Hutu] are already panic-stricken
They are looters, hooligans, and killers [Hutu]
I see those traitors with bloated cheeks [Hutu] running in panic and disarray
Those thieves [Hutu] are troublemakers.
The ugly creatures
[the Tutsi mythology preaches that people of Hamitic origin (Tutsi) are generally handsome, whereas people of Bantu origin (Hutu) are ugly]
are insane and furious.
They are the enemies of Rwanda.
They are nothing but a bunch of dishonorable dirt”.

In this poem, the young man with an indescribable beauty is Fred Rwigema, a Ugandan General and a Rwandan Tutsi in Diaspora, who led the RPF’s invasion of Rwanda on October 1st 1990. In his testimony to the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), Abdul Ruzibiza attests that Rwigema was quickly killed by some of his soldiers.  Among other things, Fred Rwigema was killed because of his strong opposition on how the war was meant to be conducted: He was absolutely opposed to any killing of innocent civilians even in the case they were reluctant to quickly embrace the RPF ideology. After Rwigema’s death, Yoweri Museveni, the current President of Uganda, called upon Paul Kagame, the current President of Rwanda. Kagame was then the Chief of Military Intelligence in the Ugandan Army and was also on a fellowship in the United States being trained by the U.S. military Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. He was asked to return to Uganda and take up a position as the commander of the invading forces.

The IMPURUZA newspaper was one of the best known newspapers of the Rwandan Tutsi in diaspora. It was published in the United States from 1984 to 1994.  As Dr Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro asserted, the Rwandan word IMPURUZA is the name of a drum, which in pre-colonial Rwanda was beaten to call able men to war. In the first issue of the IMPURUZA newspaper, its editor, Dr Alexandre Kimenyi, -a Rwandan national and a Professor at California State University, in Sacramento- explained:  “The reason why we chose this name is to remind us [Rwandan Tutsis in Diaspora] that we too are at war and that we have to continue to show heroism”.

Shortly after the PRF’s victory, Dr Alexandre Kimenyi became a dissident of the RPF. In his biography, Dr Alexandre Kimenyi attests that when RPF got in power, it was hijacked by a group of individuals who betrayed the ideas and ideals which had made it a very popular movement. Dr Alexandre Kimenyi has founded his own political party AMAHORO-People’s Congress (AMAHORO-PC).


Paul Kagame, the current Rwandan President, continues to dismiss calls for justice, fairness and end of the culture of impunity widespread in the African Great Lakes Region. He alleges that such calls are politically motivated efforts to place his liberation army on the same moral plane as mass murderers and thereby weaken his government’s moral authority.

Indeed, with the capture of Kigali by RPF, on July 4, 1994, the simultaneous killings of both Tutsis and Hutus finally came to a temporary halt. It is widely known that after Kigali’s capture by the RPF, the rebels continued killing Hutu civilians and other Tutsi and Twa dissenters in what has now come to be absurdly rationalized as their “reprisal killings.”  Just as in the course of the civil war, a large numbers of Hutu civilians were deliberately massacred by RPF troops – a fact substantiated in the so-called Gersony report named after the UN official who investigated the killings. After the RPF took over power, an even greater number of Hutu lost their lives within and outside Rwanda at their hands.

According to Dr Alexandre Kimenyi, former member of the IN.YE.NZI movement, and former Director of Research and Documentation within the RPF Executive Committee, RPF soldiers did not stop genocide. Instead, RPF soldiers committed mass murder in the process of “liberating Rwanda” not collaterally but deliberately. There is no shortage of witnesses, survivors, and documentations of RPA massacres before, during, and after genocide such as: Compendum of some RPF crimes, Rwanda: Alarming resurgence of killings, and Rwanda: Ending the silence to name just a few.

Therefore, as Dr Guillaume Murere pointed it out all the experts remain certain: the killings in 1994 were so systematic that they must have been pre-planned. Then, one must ask, who was the planner? Who was the mastermind? Since investigations of the Rwandan Government’s part have (so far) failed to find any evidence of pre-planning by Hutus, would it not be logical to investigate the other warring side, that is, the RPF-INKOTANYI and the IN.YE.NZI guerrilla movements?

Basic human rights such as freedom of speech and freedom of the press, justice for all, opening up of political space for competition of ideas and power – should be guaranteed to all the Rwandan people. These basic human rights should be sustained by real economic development, which should promote equal opportunities for all Rwandans instead of the current myth on the economic prosperity in Rwanda. Otherwise underground networks will channel social discontent and an explosion of violence will likely occur again.


9 Responses

  1. D’ accord In : …de Ingangurarugo ;
    et le reste :. YE.NZI .

  2. Thank you for such valuable information.

    It seems like the Rwandan falling into the unprecedented apocalypse in early 1990s started with Rwigema’s death and when Kagame took over the military command of the RPF.

    Here is what Abdul Ruzibiza, a former RPF rebel and Kagame’s body guard now in exile, had to say about Kagame’s fate in the near future:

    “Rwandans must mentally free themselves and make an accurate assessment of their problems.

    Habyarimana masterminded a tragedy but Kagame made it a reality.

    Kinani-the invicible has since been departed, and we need Kagame to hurry up to court where the death sentence awaits him, and when he will be gone, the rest of us will live in peace.

    An investigation as to why genocide took place in Rwanda is warranted, and before too long, the responsibilities of both the government and the rebels will be established”.

  3. Rwandans know the truth about this and some fereigners might know as well. The term INYENZI was not made up by the “genocidaire” government or their supporters. The term was coined by The Tutsi rebels of the 1960s. The current Rwandan president of Rwanda, Paul Kagame and most of those he fought with from Uganda are descendernds of the Tutsi rebels of the 60’s who called themselves INYENZI. This is a well known factor to Rwandans but not to anyone who has not bothered to do any research into it.

    The story of the Rwandan genocide as it is told today is a good selling tool for TV ratings and for political gains to benefit the current Rwandan government. However, in addition to the massacre of Tutsis in 1994 by the hutu civilian population; there were more killings committed by the RPF Tutsi rebels (current ruling party in Rwanda) than there were killings by the HUTU. Of course this is too complex and maybe too intellectually challenging for those who are just chasing ratings, book sales. It is definitely too costly for the current Rwandan officials of whom most belong in a jail cell and not in an office running the country.

    The great thing about today as opposed to the 90’s, we have more to rely on than just those who tell the official version of the story without regard to the truth. In this age of information, it is inevitable that the truth will come out. It has started anyway. 40 Rwandan officials are wanted in spain for some of the crimes committed by this regime. It won’t be long until their allies begin to feel the embarrassment of supporting a criminal organization. They will be forced to make a choice between giving them up or paying for their loyalty to these criminals. As we know in politics; there are only interests and Kagame will lose his support from the powerful nations and media the same way some of Africa’s worst villains did including the APARTHEID government of South Africa, Mobutu, Savimbi, Charles Taylor, etc…History has a way of repeating itself.

    I personally recommend economic and military sanctions against the Rwandan government as well as travel bans. This will lead to the country either cleaning up its criminal act, stop killing and terrorizing its own citizens as well as the Congolese. This will lead to a free Rwanda and a free great lakes region in general as Rwanda has been an antagonist for so long now.

  4. This is a view…

    I just question the timing and objective behind…

    Rwanda as a country is definitely moving forward..

    As they say in French, is really the time for ”la paix des braves”

    I did not see where you mentionned the hate radio that even carried in Kongo in the sweet name of freedom of speach.

    be blessed

  5. Jean Louis kayitenkore,

    This is a fact that’s documented and people who fought under that name are still alive to confirm this. Not just a view.

    You are right Rwanda is moving forward into the Congo to kill, torture, amputate, rape and terrorize Congo’s people in order plunder their natural resources. That’s some moving forward. It’s a big shame to any self respecting Rwandan.

    You question the timing? Maybe you are forgetting that it has not always been the age of information and therefore the truth suffered. The timing is always right to tell the TRUTH.

  6. Jean-Louis Kayitenkore,

    There was no need to mention that hate radio since it is included in the word MEDIA (Newspapers, Radio, etc). In addition, that hate radio has been mentioned thousands and thousands times and there was nothing new to learn about it. If you have one I’ll be glad to hear about it.

    The American people deserve to know all the truth about the Rwandan tragedy from the beginning of the RPF invasion in 1990 until now, not just the same lies over and over.

    So, let me stress it once again: RPF simpathizers abused the freedom of free speech and fuelled hatred using the MEDIA. It is a fact. I have provided one proof and more proofs are coming.

    Do you have anything new to contribute regarding this matter on either side?

    All the truth about the Rwandan tragedy must come out first then Justice for All, no more proxy Wars but an Ever lasting Peace in the region.


    (Professor Alexander Kimenyi, CSU at Sacramento )

    ENGLISH TRANSLATION (December 1995)

    (translated from the original text in Kinyarwanda by Alexander Kimenyi, 12/1990




    I was the first day of October

    The month after beautiful September

    You responded positively to our call for war

    As army Chief of Staff

    You proudly led the front

    Assisted by Bayingana and Bunyenyezi

    Shinning like stars

    You were ready for a major undertaking

    To lead an invasion of Rwanda [October 1, 1990]

    Troops and ammunitions were gathered

    At dawn you crossed the Rwandan border

    And quickly took your positions

    Ready to open fire

    During the late morning hours the fighting began

    The wild boars [Hutu soldiers of the Rwandan Armed Forces]

    Had the jitters when the brave soldiers [Tutsi, RPF] opened fire

    Victory seemed certain.

    After you witnessed their bravery

    You said good‑bye to your soldiers

    You told them: we are finally home [ Rwanda ]

    It is time for me to hand over the torch

    Do not show yourself unworthy of my sacrifice

    It is our tradition to sacrifice one’s life for the sake of the progeny and the deprived

    This tradition was initiated by King Bwimba [a Tutsi monarch]

    It was carried on by Gihana [a Tutsi warrior whose life was sacrificed to save the monarchy]

    Now, it has become a sacred ritual in the Country of Gihanga [mythical Founder of Rwanda].

    Be courageous and stay away from disgrace

    Fight ardently so that the name Inkotanyi [those who use a sword to kill;

    in feudal Rwanda , “INKOTANYI” meant “hired killers”; they were a sort of

    commando unit used by Tutsi Kings to kill at will, often as a ritual] inspires terror

    Fight bravely to bring peace to the country

    So that the fifty‑niners [Tutsi refugees of 1959] can return home with no fear or anxiety.

    At noon, soldiers gathered for the final farewell

    They roared: annihilators of the schemers

    No high jumper will ever beat your record

    Join our ancestors and receive your Medal of Honor

    I praise you Gisa, you are a brave soldier, your beauty is indescribable.

    Your fame and beauty have earned you name recognition abroad

    Teenager girls get distracted gazing at your beautiful face

    It is not surprising that you took the lead in sacrificing your life

    To free us from the greedy wild beasts [Hutus]

    To save the Drum [symbol of the Tutsi monarchy] from the bad guys [Hutus]

    And you did it all in style

    The real reason for your death is your praiseworthy kindness

    A birthright that you share with those you are joining [Tutsi ancestors]

    There is an origin to every quality

    You inherited your good character from our ancestors [Tutsis]

    You could never tolerate living under the orders of anyone and the

    humiliation of living an unsettled life abroad [Tutsi Diaspora]

    You are veritably venerable and meritedly the highest ranking Inkotanyi.

    We proudly accept the challenge to reach the goal that you set for us

    We are Noble [Tutsis believe they are noble]

    And we have the means to achieve that goal

    Scores of recruits are joining the battle

    We are all bravely following your footsteps

    Bad news for the enemy [Hutus]

    You instigated courage in all of us and nobody will ever take it away

    The brave fighters [Tutsis] will drive the termites [Hutus] out of the country

    [Note: The following paragraph contains some nerve‑racking insults that

    are close to impossible to translate into a non‑native language*]

    You are a bullfighter who launched a war to free the Nobles [Tutsis]

    Since you decided to use the entire arsenal

    The termites [Hutus] will run out of the country

    Just a few days after the first shell has landed

    Those wild rats, corrupted crooks [Hutus] are already panic‑stricken

    They are looters, hooligans, and killers [Hutus]

    I see those traitors with bloated cheeks [Hutus] running in panic and disarray

    Those thieves [Hutus] are troublemakers.

    Those ugly creatures [the Tutsi mythology preaches that people of Hamitic origin are generally handsome whereas people of Bantu origin are generally ugly] are insane and furious

    They are the enemies of Rwanda ; they are nothing but a bunch of dishonorable dirt

    Those cretins cannot think of anything but their bloated stomachs

    God knows they should lose their entire progeny [this constitutes the most offending insult to a Rwandan because it is interpreted as a wish for extinction of the genetic heritage]

    They are perverted damned and suckers

    They are frightened by our firepower; they are losing their minds

    I hear them barking like dogs

    They are begging White people [French and Belgians] to protect them

    And prevent us, the Nobles, from evicting or enslaving them

    You omnipotently have come to our rescue

    Your reward is waiting for you in the Royal Palace

    Today, our children are tortured as soon as they leave their mothers’ backs [Rwandan mothers carry babies on their backs]

    People waist their time working at Umuganda [self‑development community services people were doing to compensate the scarcity of technology] on roads

    The Hutu King [President Habyarimana] forces our people to plant useless trees [several reforestation projects existed throughout the country before the start of the October 1, 1990 invasion]

    The business community is losing its wealth taken forcibly by some stupid people [Hutus]

    Under your command, we took up arms and waged a fierce war that scared the enemy.

    Your watchwords and plans will be with us for ever and we will never be tired of them

    Today we all are prepared for war.

    You are an honorable man that admirers swear by

    You are a magnificent, admirable, and great person

    Those rapacious vultures [Hutus] have nothing on their minds

    But to fill their stomachs just like Ngunda [a greedy person in the Rwandan mythology] or pigs

    Those thugs [Hutus] destroy pastures reserved for shepherds [Tutsis]

    You gave the order to make those bandits [Hutus] disappear from Rwandan villages and fields

    So that noble people [Tutsis] can live there free and under self‑rule

    Rwigema, you are our almighty advocate

    There is nothing to fear; there is no doubt that we will make you happy

    We are already celebrating our recovered dignity

    There is no more reason to be sad, the enemy cannot laugh at us anymore

    Beloved son of the Kingdom of Mutara [a Tutsi monarch], you are our guiding light

    On the eve of the D‑day you got together with your assistants

    You asked young fighters to be brave

    You made the return of the fifty‑niners possible

    And now noble intellectuals [Tutsis] are going to help our country reclaim its past prestige

    Now the horizon is clear and beautiful

    We shall go home proud and patriotic

    We shall leave all the misery abroad

    We shall unit our forces to develop the country of our ancestors

    You are a good‑hearted individual; a cow mother could not do better

    As any good shepherd you took good care of your herds

    Now that your corpse is lying in the pastureland reserved for the majestic Inyambo cows [Rwigema died in the Mutara prairie that includes the Akagera National Park and a vast area of pastureland, home of Inyambo cows, characterized by their majestic long horns; in feudal Rwanda, they constituted an exclusive property of Kings]

    Let us drink your blood out of the chalice

    So that our veins become so strong that we will never bleed again

    Our muscles will be stronger as well

    We shall always win

    We shall fight on and clear Rwanda of dirt [Hutus]

    You were created to help and enlighten us

    You are the great pillar that our homes can stand on and our precious jewels hang on

    We shall follow you and never be lost under your guidance

    Your remembrance shall be institutionalized by law

    Live in everlasting happiness at the Royal Palace

    We shall always praise your heroism

    Rwigema, the Courageous, the Great; you will always live in the minds of us all

    As the greatest combat troops commander who wins wars

    and reserves special rewards for bravery

    Gisa, your wife and children are going to take over the lead to get us out of exile

    You are a stunning warrior; there are lots of things to praise you about

    But let me conclude with a promise that time and muse allowing

    I shall write more poems for you, I shall create a large repertoire of poems

    For the Great, Charismatic, Supernatural, and Extraordinary Man you are.

    Source : IMPURUZA No. 17, December 1990

    Author: Dr. Alexander KIMENYI, Professor, California State University at Sacramento , USA .
    […] : Comments added during the translation.

  8. […] The Acronym IN.YE.NZI: A Symbol of Bravery […]

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